3 cells generation and 2 modules generation built respectively by OXIS Energy Ltd and Williams Advanced Engineering (Module level: 2.1 kWh, 173 Wh kg-1, 24.45 Ah, 82V, UN38.3 mechanical test succes)
Dummy Battery pack is built by FICOSA containing all interfaces (electrical, thermal, mechanical) ready to host Li-S cells
New sensors for Li-S SoC and aging developed by CEIT
New BMS including balancing for Lithium sulfur has been built by FICOSA from Cranfield SoC algorithmic
High Power together with High Energy generation Lithium sulfur cell: 21 Ah, 325 Wh kg-1 and 340 Wh L-1 with 80% C/5 BoL at 1C.
Li-S is lighter than Lithium ion, 2.5 lighter from our Li-ion reference in 2014, free of critical materials (i.e. no natural graphite, no cobalt), water-based electrode manufacturing, using oil industry by product as active material, and still far away from its theoretical limits.
Li-S Modules have been electrically assessed following NEDZ and WLTP driving cycle test by Williams Advanced Engineering for both PHEV and BEV hybridization.
Li-S behavior has been simulated by SEAT from real cell data given by OXIS and Cranfield at Car level
Li-S behaves similar respect Li ion with slight increase in electrical range +2% and +10% respectively for BEV and PHEV, -15% decrease in weight, within the same volume and optimistic scenarios, i.e. evaluated in optimal and limited temperature and current rate.
ALISE Li S cells’ prototype are still non-optimized for direct battery integration in real condition with:
Cell manufacturing need to be fully automatized to reach higher reproducibility/homogeneity, limitation impacting on cell balancing at module level.
Effective lithium metal anode protection must be produced at relevant level of manufacturing
Cyclability to be improved from 100 to at least to 1.000 cycles for 80% BoL at 80% DoD
Operating temperature to be improved from 40ºC to at least to 70ºC
Charging rate must be improved from 1C to 3C maintaining the battery pack nominal capacity at 80% of its initial value
Volumetric energy as to be improved from 340 to > 500 Wh L-1 as key factor for technology integration and maintaining is low weight (i.e. > 325 Wh kg-1)
Final LCA completed by C-Tech shows that Li S has less environmental impact than NMC Li-ion.
Final LCC is complete by C-Tech and shows that Production costs are lower than current NMC 111 Li-ion, and potentially lower than emerging lower Co NMC grades.